Sperryville, VA Natural Disasters and Weather Extremes
The chance of earthquake damage in Sperryville is about the same as Virginia average and is much lower than the national average. The risk of tornado damage in Sperryville is about the same as Virginia average and is lower than the national average.
Earthquake Index, #220
The earthquake index value is calculated based on historical earthquake events data using USA.com algorithms. It is an indicator of the earthquake level in a region. A higher earthquake index value means a higher chance of an earthquake.
Volcano Index, #1
The volcano index value is calculated based on the currently known volcanoes using USA.com algorithms. It is an indicator of the possibility of a region being affected by a possible volcano eruption. A higher volcano index value means a higher chance of being affected.
Tornado Index, #424
The tornado index value is calculated based on historical tornado events data using USA.com algorithms. It is an indicator of the tornado level in a region. A higher tornado index value means a higher chance of tornado events.
Other Weather Extremes Events
A total of 3,934 other weather extremes events within 50 miles of Sperryville, VA were recorded from 1950 to 2010. The following is a break down of these events:
|Dust Storm:||0||Flood:||648||Hail:||691||Heat:||29||Heavy Snow:||72|
|High Surf:||0||Hurricane:||0||Ice Storm:||14||Landslide:||0||Strong Wind:||77|
|Thunderstorm Winds:||1,719||Tropical Storm:||4||Wildfire:||17||Winter Storm:||99||Winter Weather:||84|
No volcano is found in or near Sperryville, VA.
Historical Earthquake Events
No historical earthquake events that had recorded magnitudes of 3.5 or above found in or near Sperryville, VA.
No historical earthquake events found in or near Sperryville, VA.
Historical Tornado Events
A total of 35 historical tornado events that had recorded magnitude of 2 or above found in or near Sperryville, VA.
|Distance (miles)||Date||Magnitude||Start Lat/Log||End Lat/Log||Length||Width||Fatalities||Injuries||Property Damage||Crop Damage||Affected County|
|12.8||1978-06-19||2||38°40'N / 78°00'W||0.20 Mile||40 Yards||0||0||25K||0||Rappahannock|
|16.2||2001-09-24||4||38°34'N / 77°59'W||38°39'N / 77°54'W||7.00 Miles||75 Yards||0||2||2.0M||0||Culpeper|
|Brief Description: A tornado damaged several buildings and destroyed one home before crossing into Fauquier County. Two people were injured when the tornado damaged a trailer park. Five tornadoes touched down in Northern Virginia during the afternoon and early evening of the 24th. The thunderstorms which spawned them were created when a strong cold front moved through the region. One tornado touched down briefly in Orange County, just a few miles west of Gordonsville. A resident saw the tornado come "off the mountain" and twist trees along Route 645 near the intersection of Route 33. One tree landed on a vehicle near Route 33. It is unknown exactly how long the twister was on the ground due to the rural nature of its path, so the path length of two tenths of a mile was estimated. The damage path was about 25 yards wide and due to the amount of tree damage it was ranked an F1. Shortly before the tornado touched down in Orange County, another storm produced a much stronger tornado over the northern half of Culpeper County. The tornado was on the ground for 10 miles and touched down just east of Rixeyville on Route 640. It was F0 strength at this location and downed a tree onto a home before moving northeast to Indian Fork Road. On a hilltop at this location it destroyed all but the walkout basement of a two story brick house. Debris from the home such as bricks and wood were impaled into the ground. Plumbing and appliances were strewn across the yard and personal items such as clothing and bedding were found in trees at least 1/2 mile away. A section of a deck was found intact 1/2 mile away and some insulation was discovered 6 miles from the site. A car in the garage of the home was crushed by debris. Fortunately, no one was home at the time the tornado hit. A neighbor who witnessed the destruction said the home exploded like a bomb went off inside when the tornado "dropped onto it". The tornado was ranked an F4 at this location with winds estimated around 210 MPH. It weakened slightly as it moved northeast downing trees along a rural path south of Jeffersonton. Next, it crossed through the heart of Jeffersonton along roughly Scottsville and Springs Roads at F2 strength. Three trailer homes in the Ponderosa Trailer Court were destroyed, including one that was picked up and dropped in pieces 300 yards away. Two people at the trailer park were injured, including one person who was hit in the back by flying debris while clinging to a pole outside. Four churches, 4 trailer homes, 4 houses, and numerous trees and power lines were damaged in Jeffersonton. Two barns and a garage attached to a home were destroyed. The tornado continued to damage trees along its wooded path north of town before it crossed into Fauquier County. The twister, now at F1 strength, remained on the ground for three more miles where it downed more trees and removed the roof of a barn. The damage path crossed Hart Road and Holtzclaw Road, then it disappeared just north of Route 211. The same storm dropped a second tornado in the northern portion of Fauquier County. This tornado touched down southwest of The Plains just south of Interstate 66. Motorists saw it cross the interstate and push northeast toward Route 55. At the intersection of Route 55 and Bunker Hill Road, the twister struck a home at F1 strength. It ripped off the front porch, sending debris onto cars in the driveway. It also destroyed a pool shed and damaged several trees. The tornado crossed Route 55 where it downed trees and power poles and pushed over a tractor trailer. The tornado weakened to F0 strength as it tracked north near Whitewood Road. Two homes on Milestone Road and a few smaller buildings sustained minor damage. A few trees were damaged as the tornado continued northward just west of Halfway. The funnel dissipated before the storm crossed into Loudoun County. Another thunderstorm dropped two tornadoes along the Interstate 95 and 395 corridor southwest of Washington D.C. The first tornado touched down on Quantico Marine Corps Base just north of Garrisonville. A funnel cloud was spotted near Garrisonville shortly before the twister touched down. Trees were downed on the base along the path of the F0 tornado. Personnel sited it as it passed a quarter mile west of the fire station. The tornado continued north into Prince William County where it downed some trees in Prince William Forest Park area. The tornado moved north into the Lake Montclair community where it took down a few trees, broke branches, and bent siding up on homes. The weak tornado lifted shortly after. Because the storm passed through several limited access areas, part of the tornado track was not able to be surveyed. It is possible the tornado may not have been on the ground the entire time. The second tornado which remained on the ground for 15 miles passed through densely populated areas of Eastern Fairfax County, the western portion of the city of Alexandria, and Arlington County. The F1 tornado touched down just west of Fort Belvoir near Newington Road in Fairfax County. It skipped north-northeast through Kingstown and Franconia following Beulah Street (Route 613). Minor damage was reported at the intersections of Windsor Avenue, Fleet Drive, and Walker Lane. Several townhomes on Beulah Street received minor damage to roofing and siding. Debris was also reported in the Franconia Commons development. The tornado could be seen from the Franconia-Springfield metro station. The next report of minor damage came from the Wellington Commons and Brookland Estates communities near the intersection of Franconia Road and Route 613. Citywide, 10 homes received minor roof damage, two businesses sustained minor damage, and 40 trees and wires were downed. Next, the twister crossed Eisenhower Road as it moved into the western portion of the City of Alexandria. It weakened to F0 strength and was believed to have passed just west of Alexandria Hospital and into the Fort Ward Park area. It downed a large sign on Interstate 395 at King Road. Minor damage was reported in the Park Fairfax and Parc East communities along Martha Custis Drive near the Arlington County border. The tornado returned to F1 strength and continued north-northeast paralleling Interstate 395 into the Shirlington portion of Arlington County. It passed through the Arna Valley and Club Manor Estates developments near National Hospital Medical Center. A woman walking down 28th Street in this area was injured when a tree branch fell onto her. Nearby, windows were shattered at a restaurant. The next concentrated area of damage occurred in the Virginia Highlands development between Kent and Ives Streets. Several trees and wires were downed and a few house roofs sustained damage. A weather observer at Reagan National Airport spotted the thin funnel as it moved from Crystal City over Pentagon City and across the 14th Street Bridge and reported a second funnel descending shortly before the tornado crossed the Potomac River. The tornado moved across Interstate 395 just south of the Pentagon where it downed trees and road signs. One woman was injured when a tree fell onto her vehicle. Other vehicles received broken windows from flying debris. The tornado started to weaken fast as it crossed the 14th Street Bridge into Washington D.C. In addition to tornadoes, the storm produced very heavy downpours. In Loudoun County, Town Branch in Leesburg overflowed its banks. Several roads in low lying areas in and around town were also flooded including the Greenway at mile marker 8, Evergreen Mills Road, Loudoun Street, and the intersection of the Route 15 bypass at Sycolin Road. Three water rescues were reported. Street flooding was observed in Purcellville. Rainfall reports included 4.1 to 4.8 inches in Leesburg, 3.95 inches in Lincoln and Purcellville, 3.9 inches in Ashburn, 2.60 inches in Middleburg, and 2.49 inches in Lovettsville. In Fauquier County, Route 17 between Warrenton and Marshall was flooded. Route 55 near Marshall was also covered with water. Some secondary dirt roads in the northern portion of the county were partially washed out when small streams overflowed. A total of 4.05 inches was recorded in The Plains and 2.14 inches fell in Warrenton. In Culpeper County, 3.35 inches of rain fell in Culpeper. In Madison County, rainfall totals included 2.80 inches in Hood, 2.77 inches at Fork Mountain, 2.65 inches in Wolftown, and 2.35 inches at Big Meadows. In Rappahannock County, 3.75 inches was reported in Castleton.|
|19.9||2004-09-17||2||38°21'N / 78°24'W||38°28'N / 78°27'W||8.00 Miles||400 Yards||0||0||200K||0||Madison|
|Brief Description: A thunderstorm that moved into Madison County from Greene County produced tornado damage near Hood. A number of homes were damaged. One aluminum garage was destroyed and a rock chimney was topped off. The tornado remained on the ground for several miles and tracked northward into the higher terrain of western Madison County. Several large areas of mature mixed forest were almost completely leveled in the Rapidan Wildlife Management Area and the Shenandoah National Park.|
|21.1||2002-04-28||2||38°41'N / 78°40'W||38°41'N / 78°35'W||4.00 Miles||75 Yards||0||2||1.6M||0||Shenandoah|
|Brief Description: A tornado injured 2 people, destroyed 4 homes, damaged 56 additional homes and 36 agricultural structures, downed numerous trees, and blew over a tractor-trailer on Interstate 81. A long-lived supercell thunderstorm formed over northwest Rockingham County during the afternoon of the 28th. This severe storm moved east at 45 MPH, damaging property all of the way to the Potomac River. This same storm later produced a devastating F4 tornado in La Plata, MD. While the storm moved through North Central Virginia, it produced an F2 tornado in Shenandoah County, a significant funnel cloud in Fauquier County, large hail, heavy downpours, and scattered wind damage. In Shenandoah County, an F2 tornado touched down just east of Quicksburg near the intersection of Quicksburg Road and Old Bridge Road. The tornado stayed on the ground for 4 miles before it dissipated while moving up the west side of Massanutten Mountain. The twister was estimated to be about 75 yards wide and it caused a total of $1.6 million in damage. Along the path of the tornado, three residential structures were destroyed, 12 structures were heavily damaged, and 15 had minor damage. Four poultry houses and 15 barns were destroyed. Five poultry houses, two silos, and a mile of fencing was also damaged. On Old Bridge Road, a silo and three barns were damaged. Airborne roof debris and high winds hit a tractor-trailer on I-81 and caused it to flip onto its side. The driver of the tractor-trailer was treated for minor injuries. The tornado moved across I-81 and Route 11 into the Kay Hill subdivision. Homes were damaged and trees were downed on Lower and Upper Forge Road. A mobile home on Mantz Drive was destroyed. The tornado moved east across Smith Creek to Smith Creek Road and Franwood Lane where it caused significant damage. A two-story home just off Smith Creek Road was severely damaged by debris from a neighbor's 60-foot-high grain silo. A woman inside the structure was treated for bruises. On Franwood Lane, two turkey houses were destroyed and four were severely damaged. One dog that lived on the property was killed and another was injured. A cat was never found. A shed was damaged and work equipment was scattered across the property. At Franwood Farms Airport, 5 people took shelter from the storm in a hangar. A person in the hangar said the walls kept coming closer together as the tornado approached and eventually the roof blew off the building. The tornado also flipped a plane on the landing strip. The tornado's path was visible up to two miles east of Franwood Farms through a path of damaged trees in the forest. The path of tree damage ended as the topography sloped up Massanutten Mountain into George Washington National Forest. In addition, an orchard west of Mt. Jackson just north of the tornado's path, sustained hail damage. In Rockingham County, dime sized hail fell in Bergton for ten minutes. In Page County, golf ball sized hail fell in Rileyville. Power lines were downed in Stanley. In Culpeper County, a tree was downed onto Route 522 near Route 633 in Norman. In Fauquier County, a funnel cloud was photographed by a meteorologist on a hill near Fauquier Springs. The time series of photos shows the funnel never reaching the ground. High winds downed a large tree and utility poles onto Harts Mill and Spriggs roads about 5 miles west of Warrenton. In New Baltimore, dime sized hail was reported. In Prince William County, quarter sized hail fell in Woodbridge and Manassas. Golf ball sized hail caused property damage in Dale City. A total of 2.20 inches of rain fell in Canova as the storm passed through.|
|22.3||1976-06-12||2||38°20'N / 78°16'W||0.20 Mile||3 Yards||0||0||25K||0||Madison|
|23.3||2004-09-17||3||38°31'N / 77°48'W||38°38'N / 77°50'W||9.00 Miles||200 Yards||0||2||250K||0||Fauquier|
|Brief Description: A strong tornado touched down in southern Fauquier County, near Remington. A home was pushed off its foundation. A new pickup truck was lifted and hurled 75 yards over trees and power lines. It crashed upside down in a field.|
|24.0||2004-09-17||2||38°37'N / 77°47'W||38°44'N / 77°48'W||8.00 Miles||150 Yards||0||0||500K||0||Fauquier|
|Brief Description: An F2 tornado touched down near Opal and tracked north. The tornado produced severe tree damage and some structural damage to several dwellings before dissipating near Warrenton. This is the second tornado of three tornadoes in Fauquier County associated with the remnants of Hurricane Ivan.|
|24.3||1960-08-06||2||38°28'N / 78°37'W||0||0||25K||0||Rockingham|
|25.2||1983-10-13||2||38°25'N / 77°53'W||1.00 Mile||40 Yards||0||6||2.5M||0||Culpeper|
|26.4||2004-09-08||2||38°32'N / 77°46'W||38°34'N / 77°46'W||1.50 Miles||200 Yards||0||0||500K||0||Fauquier|
|Brief Description: A tornado touched down 2 miles south of Bealeton and lifted a half mile south of Bealeton. The storm was 200 yards wide. The initial touchdown was near Morgansburg Road. The storm tracked north for 1.5 miles and produced significant damage to at least 2 homes. A roof was peeled off one home and some of the outside walls showed signs of bowing. At another dwelling, a garage door was blown into the garage and out of the sidewall. Several projectiles were lodged in the south side of the house. Three large green houses and some portable outhouses were also damaged. Two Ryder trucks were overturned. One truck fell on a small pickup, which sustained considerable damage. Maximum wind speeds were 115 to 130 mph.|
|26.8||1959-09-30||3||38°18'N / 78°26'W||2.00 Miles||100 Yards||1||9||25K||0||Greene|
|28.1||2004-09-17||2||38°42'N / 77°45'W||38°52'N / 77°44'W||13.00 Miles||200 Yards||0||0||750K||0||Fauquier|
|Brief Description: An F2 tornado produced widespread structural damage to two subdivisions in northern Fauquier County. Some small items were turned into projectiles by this tornado and landed in trees and the sides of homes and some vehicles. There was substantial tree damage. Numerous large, healthy trees were uprooted and snapped. This is the third tornado of this event in Fauquier.|
|28.3||1990-10-18||3||38°18'N / 77°58'W||38°20'N / 77°55'W||3.50 Miles||33 Yards||0||1||2.5M||0||Orange|
|28.9||2004-09-17||2||38°16'N / 77°55'W||38°23'N / 77°54'W||7.00 Miles||100 Yards||0||0||75K||0||Orange|
|Brief Description: A thunderstorm produced a second tornado in Rhodesville along Route 20 in eastern Orange County. A shed, a horse trailer, and a two silos were destroyed on one farm. A tree was thrown onto a house and a mobile home was demolished. The storm continued its northward and produced sporadic and less significant damage.|
|28.9||2004-09-17||2||38°17'N / 78°26'W||38°15'N / 78°26'W||5.00 Miles||100 Yards||0||3||3.0M||0||Greene|
|Brief Description: A tornadic thunderstorm touched down near Standardsville. A roof was torn off a building just south of U.S. Highway 33. The roof was also torn off a house just north of U.S. Highway 33. The most extensive damage occurred around Highway 621. Four dwellings and a mobile home were destroyed. Approximately 50 other structures were damaged, including a nearby country club and a concrete block building. A trailer filled with cattle gates was also destroyed.|
|28.9||1965-08-17||2||38°15'N / 78°06'W||0||0||250K||0||Orange|
|31.0||1952-04-05||2||38°22'N / 78°44'W||38°25'N / 78°40'W||4.90 Miles||33 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Rockingham|
|31.4||1993-09-27||2||38°47'N / 77°42'W||38°49'N / 77°40'W||3.00 Miles||100 Yards||0||2||500K||0||Fauquier And Prince William|
|Brief Description: Thunderstorms moved through norther Virginia downing trees near Tanners and Madison in Madison County and across northern Culpeper County. A tornado touched down near New Baltimore, or about 2.5 miles east of Warrenton in Faquier County, and moved east into Prince William County to about 2 miles southwest of Manassas. The tornado ripped a barn roof off and blew a large business sign down as well as downing trees and power lines. There was significant structural damage to one home in the Nokesville area. Two people sustained minor injuries from flying debris.|
|32.9||1985-07-25||3||38°12'N / 78°25'W||38°12'N / 78°25'W||0.10 Mile||100 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Albemarle|
|32.9||1985-07-25||3||38°12'N / 78°25'W||38°12'N / 78°25'W||0.10 Mile||100 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Greene|
|36.7||2004-09-17||2||39°10'N / 78°10'W||39°12'N / 78°09'W||5.00 Miles||125 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Frederick|
|Brief Description: An F2 tornado produced a nearly continuous path of damage for 5 miles in eastern Frederick County. It touched down west of Millwood Pike near the Winchester Airport. Three homes suffered roof damage, a detached two car garage was destroyed, a platform deck was blown away, an office trailer was overturned, and numerous trees along the track of the storm were uprooted or topped.|
|37.5||1962-08-09||2||38°05'N / 78°00'W||38°19'N / 77°43'W||22.20 Miles||33 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Louisa|
|39.5||1980-06-03||2||39°00'N / 77°40'W||38°59'N / 77°37'W||2.70 Miles||100 Yards||0||0||25K||0||Loudoun|
|41.4||1975-08-04||2||39°14'N / 78°02'W||0.80 Mile||100 Yards||0||0||250K||0||Clarke|
|43.9||2004-09-17||2||38°37'N / 77°25'W||38°35'N / 77°26'W||4.00 Miles||250 Yards||0||0||1.0M||0||Prince William|
|Brief Description: A tornadic thunderstorm moved through central Prince William County. This is the same storm that produced damage earlier in Stafford County. The initial touchdown in Prince William County was west of Dale City, near Independent Hill and Dumfries Road. The storm snapped or uprooted many large hardwood trees. Some of the trees fell on houses and other structures. The storm lifted and then reformed for the second touchdown in Manassas. Several homes suffered roof and shingle damage. An automobile was moved several feet. Damaged also occurred in Manassas Park and in Yorkshire Village. This tornado continued north into Fairfax County.|
|44.3||1952-04-05||2||38°13'N / 78°50'W||1.00 Mile||150 Yards||0||2||25K||0||Augusta|
|44.8||2004-09-17||2||38°48'N / 77°26'W||38°54'N / 77°27'W||7.00 Miles||150 Yards||0||1||2.5M||0||Fairfax|
|Brief Description: A tornadic thunderstorm entered western Fairfax County from Prince William County. The storm had a path of about 7 miles. Beginning on Old Centerville Road, the storm produced scattered tree damage along its path and minor roofing damage to structures in the London Town Area. A line of damage was carved from Lee Highway northward into the Centerville and Chantilly areas.The tornado destroyed one estate and damaged about 50 other dwellings. The storm was also responsible for downed trees and power lines. The tornado lifted as it crossed Route 50.|
|44.9||2008-05-08||2||38°21'N / 77°31'W||38°23'N / 77°28'W||3.00 Miles||150 Yards||0||0||10.0M||0K||Stafford|
|Brief Description: EVENT NARRATIVE: An NWS Storm Survey determined that a low-end EF2 tornado struck the England Run North subdivision in Berea. The tornado damage began just south of Route 17 in Berea. There were 160 home damaged and nearly destroyed in the England Run subdivision, with 25 categorized as uninhabitable. The storm continued northeast, damaging buildings at a FedEx facility. EPISODE NARRATIVE: A strong low pressure system crossed the Mid Atlantic during the afternoon and evening hours of May 8th. This system along with warm temperatures and high dew points triggered numerous strong to severe showers and thunderstorms across the region. Two tornadoes occurred in central Virginia. Several storms produced damaging winds that downed trees and power lines in portions of northern and central Virginia. A few locations reported flooding as storms trained over the same area through the afternoon and evening.|
|45.7||1961-07-13||2||39°19'N / 78°12'W||0||1||3K||0||Frederick|
|46.4||1981-07-28||2||38°54'N / 77°26'W||0.10 Mile||27 Yards||0||0||25K||0||Fairfax|
|46.6||1959-09-30||3||38°03'N / 78°37'W||0.80 Mile||200 Yards||11||4||250K||0||Albemarle|
|48.4||1996-06-24||2||38°50'N / 77°31'W||38°50'N / 77°13'W||19.00 Miles||200 Yards||0||1||4.0M||0||Fairfax|
|Brief Description: A tornado, associated with the mesocyclone of a heavy-precipitation supercell, touched down in extreme southeastern Loudoun Co near the Bull Run, then proceeded east-southeast for 20 miles, knocking down over 1000 trees and causing substantial property damage, especially in western Fairfax County, before lifting along the Capital Beltway at the Braddock Road interchange less than 2 miles west of Annandale. While moving over rural terrain in extreme southeastern Loudoun and extreme western Fairfax Cos, the tornado uprooted or snapped tens of trees. The storm rapidly intensified over western Fairfax Co, where it produced F2 damage. The storm uprooted or snapped hundreds of trees along Pleasant Valley Road (local route 621) before moving into the Sully Station area of Centreville, where it produced estimated winds of over 130 mph. The most impressive damage occurred along Tree Line Drive, where 11 of 17 homes incurred moderate to major damage. Eight homes were condemned due to major damage or total destruction, including one which lost it's entire roof and back wall. Dozens more homes sustained moderate damage, including shingle, siding, chimney, roof, and window damage. After passing through Sully Station, the twister weakened somewhat, producing F1-rated damage until just south of Fairfax City (near Burke), then weakened to F0 intensity before it was overwhelmed by straight-line winds near the Capital Beltway. The storm accelerated on an east-southeast track roughly paralleling Braddock Road. Additional damage was incurred to residences and trees from subdivisions west of Fairfax City to just north of Burke (south of Fairfax City), continuing to the Annandale area. The combined efforts of several agencies produced property damage estimates along the track (not including flora) to be $2.99 million. Included in that total are 323 homes which sustained minor damage. An estimated 80 thousand homes lost power along the track of the tornado in Fairfax Co, with some homes not receiving juice until several days after the event.|
|48.7||1979-09-05||2||39°06'N / 77°32'W||0.50 Mile||50 Yards||0||2||250K||0||Loudoun|
|49.1||2004-09-17||2||38°57'N / 77°27'W||39°05'N / 77°27'W||8.00 Miles||150 Yards||0||0||3.0M||0||Loudoun|
|Brief Description: A thunderstorm moved into eastern Loudoun County from Fairfax County near the Dulles International Airport. The storm produced a tornado which touched down at Dulles International Airport and passed within one half mile of the National Weather Service Forecast Office in Sterling. This prompted the staff on duty to seek shelter in the office constructed saferoom. As the storm traveled north from the Dulles International Airport, it produced minor tree damage. More extensive damage occurred north of Waxpool Road at the Beaumede Corporate Park. Seven buildings were damaged. A wall collapsed in one of the buildings. A tractor trailer was overturned. The tornado also pushed two cars into the side of a building. The tornado weakened as it traveled north. The last damage in Loudoun County was reported just north of Route 7.|
|50.0||1989-11-16||2||39°15'N / 77°47'W||39°20'N / 77°48'W||9.00 Miles||50 Yards||0||3||250K||0||Jefferson|
* The information on this page is based on the global volcano database, the U.S. earthquake database of 1638-1985, and the U.S. Tornado and Weather Extremes database of 1950-2010.